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NOTE: You are asked to answer just two from Section A(Nos 1-4) and three from section B (5-10)
(i) Age: In some countries ,25years of age may be the minimum age for seeking election into house of Representative and 35years of age for presidential eg Nigeria.
(ii) Residential qualification : The candidate must have lived in the country or community for a number of years or months as stipulated in the constitution of the country.
(iii) Educational qualification: Educational qualification is another condition for standing as a candidate for any election. In some countries eg Nigeria,for any elective post eg into the parliament, the individual must have a minimum of West African school certificate.
(iv) Payment of tax: He must be ready to provide the evidence of payment of tax at least for some years.
(v) No criminal record: He must not be found to have involved in any criminal case or to have been imprisoned for any criminal offence.
(vi) Citizenship: Candidates for any elective post in many countries must be citizen of that country.
A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a “public matter”, not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are attained, through democracy, oligarchy and autocracy
(i) Sovereignty in the hands of the people: The power of a republican government emanates from the people. The people elect the government through a general election. The government of the day generally exists for the benefit of the people. The people are dissatisfied with the performance of the government, they can remove or replace the during the next general elections. Sovereignty therefore lies in the hands of the people.
(ii) Fixed Term of Office: In a republican system of government, the constitution prescribes a fixed term of office for the president, usually, four years, but in some cases five or even seven years. The mandate of the president can be renewed only once, after which the president can no longer be constitutionally be elected. Another person must offer him or herself to be elected.
(iii) Periodic Elections: In a republic system of government, elections are conducted periodically and all political positions are contested for by individuals. For example Ghana and the United States, among other republican countries organize general elections every four years.
(iv) Universal Adult Suffrage: In a republican system of government, elections are held on the basis of universal adult suffrage. This means all qualified adult voters are allowed to cast their ballots.
(v) Supremacy of the constitution: In a republican system of government, the constitution is the supreme law of the land. Any other law found to be inconsistent with any provision of the constitution can be challenged in the court of law. If proven, such law is declared null and void.
(i) Good government
(ii) Customs and tradition
(iv) Foreign policy objectives
(v) Good and Reliable leadership
(vi) Legitimacy through periodic elections
(i) Good government: If the government policies are best intentioned ,the people will continue to have trust and confidence in such government. For example ,in the areas of providing social amenities and infrastructure ,maintenance of law and order and rule of law in place.
(ii) Customs and tradition: Respect for established customs and traditions of the society can help to sustain or determine legitimacy eg hereditary as in the British monarchy
(iii) Ideology: The ability of the government to uphold the tenets of the states ideology will help determine legitimacy eg communism in China and capitalism in USA
(iv) Foreign policy objectives: The extent of foreign policy objectives initiated by a country determines the level of acceptance given it by other countries
(v) Good and Reliable leadership: legitimacy may be accorded a leader if he performs creditably in office
(vi) Legitimacy through periodic elections: A free and fair election is a symbol of legitimacy and it registers the support of the people.
(Answer ANY THREE)
(i) Fairness Among Different Ethnic Groups:The government should embrace fairness in order to eliminate the issue of favoritism in Nigeria.
(ii) Removal Of Indigene And Non-Indigene Separation; For a proper development of federalism in Nigeria, there should be a removal of indigene and non-indigene dichotomy from the constitution. It is really Abad idea for nation-building and national integration to see fellow Nigerians, whom were born and may have lived in a place all their lives, apply for a job and be rejected.
(iii) The Practice Of Fiscal Federalism; According to Chris Attah, such practice is the panacea to the problems plaguing Nigeria and its development. Attah said that if the government accepts fiscal federalism, most of Nigeria’s problems would be solved.
(iv) Equal Decentralization Of Power: The federalism in Nigeria has structured in a way that the Central government holds more power than the state government. Which is not supposed to be so. There should be an equal distribution of power between the federal and the state government.
(v) Review Of Federal Character Principles:what does this mean? It implies mean it should not just adhere to with insincerity or with a lenient hand rather a strict and core action should be seen to the full implementation and allow fair entitlement among all ethnic groups in the country.
(vi) Promotion Of States Internal Revenue: For a well-defined federalism to be practiced in Nigeria, each level of government should have enough resources and funds to perform its project without appealing to the other level of government for financial assistance.
(i) The struggle for self-government
(ii) Political rights
(iv) Nationalist opposition
(v) Constitutional conferences
(vi) Sending of delegates to London
(i) The struggle for self-government: The party encouraged the unity of Nigerians and was foremost in the struggle for self-government in Nigeria.
(ii) Political rights: It educated Nigerians on their political rights.
(iii) Publications: It introduced and published the West African Pilot which served as a powerful platform for opposing colonial rule.
(iv) Nationalist opposition: The party was the brain behind nationalists opposition to the 1946 Richard’s constitution.
(v) Constitutional conferences: It took part in the most of the constitutional conferences, eg the 1953 London constitutional conferences.
(vi) Sending of delegates to London: The part was instrumental to the sending of delegates to London to protest the 1946 constitution.
(i) Political education : One of the effects of nationalism was the encouragement it gave to political education and training of future political leaders.People were also educated on their political rights
(ii) Constitutional change: Nationalism resulted in the reforms of most of the colonial constitution.These changes were necessary in order to involve Nigerians in the affairs of their country
(iii) Independence: Nationalism or nationalist activities led to the independence of Nigeria on the 1st October ,1996
(iv) Formation of political parties: Nationalism led to the formation of political parties eg NNDP,NCNC,NPC,AG etc These parties played key roles in de-colonisation process.
(v) Constitutional conferences: Nationalism also resulted in Nigerians taking part in some of the constitutional conferences both within and outside the country. In the process,reforms were brought into the political system
(vi) The press: Newspaper played effective role in awakening the minds of Nigerians towards the struggle for self rule eg West Africa pilot and Lagos daily news
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