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(i) Data is lost when the device loses power.
(ii) It refers to man-made memory such as the random access memory(RAM).
(iii) It is a volatile memory.
(iv) It holds data or instructions that are currently in use.
(v) Data is directly accesses by the CPU.
(i) Data is intact even when the device loses power.
(ii) It refers to auxiliary memory, external memory or secondary memory.
(iii) It is a non-volatile memory.
(iv) It is used to store and retrieve data or information on a long-term basis.
(v) Data is not directly accessed by the CPU.
(i) Sends data to the computer
(ii) Input devices are more complicated as they have complex coating to ensure that the user can interact with the computer correctly
(iii) The data is provided throug input devices such as keyboard, mouse, track ball and joystick.
(i) Gets data from the computer.
(ii) They are simpler for user since they only see the results and do not have to learn the processes.
(iii) The data is provided throug output devices like display screen, printer, plotter and speaker.
Email is a method of exchanging digital messages over a communication network such as internet while Yahoo is an email service provider and an internet Portal that incorporates a search engine and a directory if world wide web site organized in a hierarchy of topic categories.
First generation computers: It use vacuum tubes as a major piece of technology. Vacuum tubes were widely used in computers from 1940 to 1956. Vacuum tubes were larger components and resulted in first generation computers being quite large in size taking up a lot of space in a room. These first generation computers relied on ‘machine language’ (which is the most basic programming language that can be understood by computers). These computers were limited to solving one problem at a time.
Second generation computers: It made use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes. Transistors were widely used in computers from 1956 to 1963. Transistors were smaller than vacuum and allowed computers to be smaller in size, faster in speed and cheaper to build. The language evolved from cryptic binary language to symbolic (‘assembly’) languages. This meant programmers could create instructions in words.
Third generation computers: Introduced the use of IC(integrated circuits) in computers. Using IC’s in computers helped reduce the size of computers even more compared to second generation computers, as well as make them faster. These were the first computers where users interacted using keyboards and monitors which interfaced with an operating system, a significant leap up from the punch cards and printouts.
(i) It allows many programs to operate at the same time.
(ii) Windows applications take up less disk space and less space in memory when windows is running already.
(iii) Windows provides functions with the ability to draw text in different styles and sizes that is not provided in DOS.
(i) It manages the computer’s resources such as the central processing unit, memory, disk drives and printers.
(ii) It establishes a user interface.
(i) Mainframe computer.
(ii) Micro computer.
(iii) Mini computer.
(i) UDP – User Datagram Protocol
(ii) HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
(iii) HTML – Hypertext Markup Language
(iv) ISP – Internet Service Provider.
A word processor is a program that is used to create different types of documents. The most common known one is Microsoft word, although there are many more and many better ones while word processing is when you take the information someone has sent/given you and create a document using one of the above programs.
Headers and footers are required in a document to make it more structured and organized.
(i) It offers users a variety of reading modes
(ii) It works on mobile devices as well as computers
(iii) It can access documents from the cloud
(iv) It supports various file formats and lets users add multimedia to their documents
Mail merge is used to easily modify one part of a document with unique data elements.
A spreadsheet is an application that enables a user to calculate numerical data, save, sort and manage data in an arranged form of rows and columns.
A function in Excel is a predefined formula that performs calculations using specific values in a particular order.
Minimum value is a formula function used in Microsoft Excel and other spreadsheet programs to find the mninimum value in a range of cells. For example, the formula below finds the minimum value in cells A1 through A10.
Maximum value is a computer program that you run from a worksheet cell formula MIT determines the maximum value out of a group of values.
Adding values helps users perform a quick summation of specified cells in MS Excel
(i) It provides invaluable tools for collecting and calculating data of all types
(ii) It is used to organize and categorize data into a logical format
(a) Cell address is an alphanumeric value used to identify a specific cell in a spreadsheet.
(b) Worksheet is a single page in a file created with an electronic spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel or Google Sheets.
(c) Workbook is a collection of one or more spreadsheets in a single file.
A database management system (DBMS) is the software that allows a computer to perform database functions of storing,retrieving ,adding,deleting and modifying data. It also allow users to create their own databases.
Database: A database is an organized collection of data, generally stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. It is also a set of data that has a regular structure and that is organized in such a way that a computer can easily find the desired information.
Record: Record is a group of related data held within the same structure. Groups of records are then saved in a table; the table defines the data that each record may contain. In a given database, there are multiple tables, each containing multiple records.
Query: A query is a request for data or information from a database table or combination of tables. One of several different query languages may be used to perform a range of simple to complex database queries. SQL, the most well-known and widely-used query language, is familiar to most database administrators.
(vi) Datasheet view: Datasheet view refers to row wise and column wise viewing of data in a table in database applications such as spreadsheets, Access, Excel, and so on. The information pertaining to individual records is provided in individual rows and the attributes related to that record is given in the corresponding columns.
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